Menu Close


  1. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB).  2016.  Materials authorized for the treatment of wine and juice.  Part 24 of Title 27 of the Code of Federal Regulations (27 CFR part 24).
  2. Alcoholic Liquor Duties Act.  1979.  Chapter 4, Part 1, Section 2.
  3. Allen, A.H.  1892.  Note on Tabarie’s Method of Determining AlcoholThe Analyst.  January 1892, 5.
  4. Anderson, S.F. and Hull, R.  1970.  The Art of Making Wine.  Penguin Books, New York, ISBN 0-452-26744-7.
  5. Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI).  2015.  Winemaking Calculators and App.
  6. Barth, G.  1905.  Zur Bieranalyse mittels Refraktometer. (For Beer Analysis by Refractometer.)  Zeitschrift fur das gesamte Brauwesen.  XXVIII, Nr. 19, 303-306.
  7. Beelman, R.B. and Gallander, J.F.  1979.  Wine Deacidification.  In Advances in Food Research.  Volume 25, C.O. Chichester et. al. ed., Academic Press, New York, ISBN 0-12-016425-6.
  8. Berry, C.J.J.  1987.  First Steps in Winemaking.  G. W. Kent, Ann Arbor, MI, ISBN 0-900841-83-4. ISBN 0-88266-528-6.
  9. Bisson, L.F. and Butzke, C.E.  2000.  Diagnosis and Rectification of Stuck and Sluggish FermentationsAm. J. Enol. Vitic., 51:2, 168-177.
  10. Blount-Elliott, T.  2016.  Advanced Nutrients in Meadmaking.
  11. Blunt, T.P.  1891.  Note on Tabarie’s Process for the Indirect Determination of AlcoholThe Analyst.  December 1891, 221-224.
  12. Boulton, R.B., Singleton, V.L., Bisson, L.F., and Kunkee, R.E.  1999.  Principles and Practices of Winemaking.  Springer, New York, ISBN 978-1-4419-5190-8.
  13. Cardarelli, F.  2003.  Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures, Their SI Equivalences and Origins.  M.J. Shields trans.  Springer-Verlag, London, ISBN 1-85233-682-X.
  14. Collings, B.  2002.  Acid/pH Adjustments.  The British Columbia Amateur Winemakers Association (BCAWA).
  15. Commission of the European Communities (CEC).  1990.  Commission Regulation (EEC) No 2676/90 of 17 September 1990 determining community methods for the analysis of winesOfficial Journal of the European Communities.  L272, Vol. 33, Table II, pp. 17-34.  3 October 1990.
  16. Cooke, G.M. and Lapsley, J.T.  1988.  Making Table Wine at Home.  University of California Davis, ISBN 0-931876-80-X.
  17. Cox, J.  1985.  From Vines to Wines.  Harper & Row, New York, ISBN 0-88266-528-6.
  18. Cutaia, A.J., Reid, A., and Speers, R.A.  2009.  Examination of the Relationships Between Original, Real and Apparent Extracts, and Alcohol in Pilot Plant and Commercially Produced BeersJournal of the Institute of Brewing.  115(4), 318–327.
  19. Duncan, P. and Acton, B.  1967.  Progressive Winemaking.  Standard Press, Andover, ISBN 0-900841-23-0.
  20. Espejo, F. and Armada, S.  2011.  Determination of Volumetric Coefficients of Thermal Expansion in Alcoholic Beverages and Aqueous Ethanol-Sucrose Mixtures by Differential Volume Measurements.  Food and Bioprocess Technology.  Volume 5, Issue 7, 2805-2818.
  21. Frishman, R. and Frishman, E.  1979.  Enjoy Home Winemaking.  Crosby & Baker, Westport, MA.
  22. Garey, T.  1996.  The Joy of Home Winemaking.  Avon Books, New York, ISBN 0-380-78227-8, web site.
  23. Hackbarth, J.J.  2009.  The Effect of Ethanol-Sucrose Interactions on Specific Gravity.  J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem.  67:146-151.
  24. Hackbarth, J.J.  2011.  The Effect of Ethanol-Sucrose Interactions on Specific Gravity. Part 2: A New Algorithm for Estimating Specific Gravity.  J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem.  69(1):39-43.
  25. Harvey, S.  1892.  Note on Tabarie’s Process for the Indirect Determination of Alcohol in BeersThe Analyst.  January 1892, 1-4.
  26. Hall, M.L.  1995.  Brew by the Numbers.  Zymurgy.  Vol. 18 No. 2, 54-61.
  27. Honneyman, W.  1966.  Calculating Alcohol Yields from Specific Gravities: A Lecture of Considerable Interest to Winemakers Who Rely on the Hydrometer Alone for Estimating Alcohol Yields.  Belfast.
  28. Horwitz, W. and Latimer, G.W. eds.  2005.  Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.  18th Edition, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD,  ISBN 0-935584-78-1.
  29. Jakob, L.  1995.  Lexikon der Önologie.  Meininger Verlag.
  30. Keller, J.  2001.  Measuring Additives in Winemaking.
  31. Leonard, N. and Smith, H.M.  1897.  Note on the Indirect (Tabarie’s) Method for the Estimation of AlcoholThe Analyst.  September 1897, 225-228.
  32. Leverett, B.  1995.  The Complete Guide to Home Winemaking.  Guernsey Press, ISBN 1-85327-099-7.
  33. Margalit, Y.  2004.  Concepts in Wine Chemistry.  2nd Edition, Wine Appreciation Guild, San Francisco, ISBN 1-891267-74-4.
  34. Marsh, G.  1958.  Alcohol Yield: Factors and MethodsAm. J. Enol. Vitic., 9:2, 53-58.
  35. Monash Scientific.  2015.  Alcohol Determination for Fortification.
  36. Mulder, G.J.  1857.  The Chemistry of Wine.  John Churchill, New Burlington Street, London, 157-167.
  37. OIML.  1973.  International Recommendation 22: International Alcoholometric Tables.  Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (International Organisation of Legal Metrology), Paris.
  38. OIV.  2009.  Compendium of International Methods of Analysis – OIV – Total Dry Matter.  Method OIV-MA-AS2-03B.  L’Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin (The International Organisation of Vine and Wine), Paris.
  39. Pambianchi, D.  2000.  Solving the Sulfite PuzzleWineMaker Magazine online.  Winter 2000.
  40. Pambianchi, D.  2008.  Techniques in Home Winemaking.  Véhicule Press, Montreal, ISBN 978-1-55065-236-9.
  41. Pambianchi, D.  2010.  How Does Blending Impact pH?
  42. Pambianchi, D.  2021.  Modern Home Winemaking: A Guide to Making Consistently Great Wines.  Véhicule Press, Montreal, ISBN 978-1-55065-536-6.
  43. Pambianchi, D.  2021.  Yeast StrainsTechniques in Home Winemaking
  44. Pato, M. and de Miranda, P.  1938.  O Envasilhalmento do Vinho Porto – Fórmulas e Tabelas Para a Obtenção de Vinho do Porto com a Graduação e Densidade Desejadas (The Storage of Port Wine in a Cask – Formulas and Tables for Obtaining Port Wine with the Desired Strength and Density).  Edicão do Instituto do Vinho do Porto, Porto.
  45. Plant, C.  2001.  The Use of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in Winemaking.  The British Columbia Amateur Winemakers Association (BCAWA).
  46. Race, J.  1908.  Beer Analysis.  Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry.  27: 544–547.
  47. Ritchie Products Company.  2004.  Calculating the ABV (Alcohol by Volume) of Wines.
  48. Roesener, W.  2001.  Measuring Alcohol and Residual SolidsAWOnews.  Amateur Winemakers of Ontario, Newsletter No. 21, May 2001, 7-9.
  49. Rogerson, F. and Symington, C.  2006.  A Method for the Estimation of Alcohol in Fortified Wines Using Hydrometer Baumé and Refractometer BrixAm. J. Enol. Vitic., 57:4, 486-490.
  50. Rosenhauer, K., Schneider, F. and Emmerich A.  1966.  Brechungsindex von Saccharoselösungen. Internationale Tabellen 1966 der ICUMSA (Refractive Index of Sucrose Solutions. International Tables 1966 of ICUMSA).  Institut fur Landwirtschaftliche Technologie und Zuckerindustrie, Braunschweig, Germany.
  51. Rotter, B.  2008.  Calculation Methods for Winemaking Adjustments.
  52. Schidrowitz, P.  1911.  SpiritsEncyclopaedia Brittanica.  11th Edition, Volume XXV, Hugh Chisholm ed., The Encyclopaedia Brittanica Co., New York.
  53. Schmitt, Alfred.  1983.  Aktuelle Weinanalytik: ein Leitfaden für die Praxis.  Verlag Heller Chemie- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft.  ISBN 3980049833.
  54. Scott Laboratories.  2015.  2015 Fermentation Handbook.
  55. Scott Laboratories.  2016.  2016 Fermentation Handbook.
  56. Scott Laboratories.  2020.  2020 Winemaking Handbook.
  57. Son, H.S., Hong, Y.S., Park, W.M., Yu, M.A. and Lee, C.H.  2009.  A Novel Approach for Estimating Sugar and Alcohol Concentrations in Wines Using Refractometer and Hydrometer.  Journal of Food Science.  Vol. 74, No. 2, C106-C111.
  58. Sugar Journal.  1970.  Refractive Index of Sucrose Solutions.  Sugar J.  v. 33, 15-22.
  59. Tabarié, M.É.  1830.  Nouvel Œnométre, ou Instrument pour Déterminer la Quantité d’Alcool Contenue dans le Vin ou Tout Autre Liquide Spiritueux. (A New Œnometer, or Instrument for Determining the Quantity of Alcohol Contained in Wine or in Any Other Spiritous Liquor.)   Annales de Chimie et de Physique.  XLV, 222.
  60. Thorpe, E.  1915.  Alcoholometric Tables. Longmans, Green and Co., London.
  61. Thorpe, E. and Brown, H.T.  1914.  Reports on the Determination of the Original Gravity of Beers by the Distillation Process: Parts I-V. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 20: 569-713.
  62. Thurston, A.  1922.  Pharmaceutical and Food Analysis.  D. Van Norstrand Company, New York, 18-19.
  63. United States Department of Agriculture.  2011.  Technical Procedures Manual.  PPD Inspection Series, Approved by Randle A. Macon.
  64. Weast, R.C. ed.  1977.  CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.  57th Edition, CRC Press, Cleveland, OH, ISBN 0-87819-456-8.
  65. Williams, S. ed.  1984.  Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.  14th Edition, AOAC International, Arlington, VA, ISBN 0-935584-24-2.